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    Physics

    Assistant Professor Ohmura Shu and Professor Takahashi Akira of the Nagoya Institute of Technology and others have developed a charge model to describe photo-excited states of one-dimensional Mott insulators under the JST Strategic Basic Research Programs. They have also succeeded in constructing a many-body Wannier function as the localized basis state of the photo-excited states and calculating large-system, optical conductivity spectra that can be compared with experimental results. [...]
    Fri, Jan 17, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    From veins that deliver oxygen to tissues to xylem that send water into stems and leaves, vascular networks are a crucial component of life. In biology, there is a wide range of unique patterns, like the individualized structures found on leaves, along with many conserved structures, such as named arteries and veins in the human body. These two observations led scientists to think that vascular networks evolved from a common design, but how, exactly, could nature create so many complex structures from a single starting point? [...]
    Fri, Jan 17, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Quantum physics is moving out of the laboratory and into everyday life. Despite headline results about quantum computers solving problems impossible for classical computers, technical challenges are standing in the way of getting quantum physics into the real world. New research published in Nature Communications from teams at Aalto University and Lund University could provide an important tool in this quest. [...]
    Fri, Jan 17, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. They even coined a term for it— Magneto-elastoresistance, or MER. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Researchers have developed a nondestructive and noninvasive optical technique that can determine the setting times for various types of cement paste, which is used to bind new and old concrete surfaces. The new method could aid in the development of optimized types of cement with less impact on the environment. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Scientists and Engineers have used surface-emitting semiconductor lasers in data communications, for sensing, in FaceID and within augmented reality glasses. In a new report, Yong-Ho Ra and a research team in the departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Advanced Electronics and Photonics in Canada, Korea and the U.S., detailed the first achievement of an all-epitaxial, distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-free, electrically injected surface-emitting green laser. They optimized the device by exploring the photonic band edge modes formed in dislocation-free gallium nitride nanocrystal arrays, without using conventional DBRs. They operated the device at approximately 523 nm, with a threshold current of 400 A/cm2—an order of magnitude lower than previously reported blue laser diodes. The studies opened a new paradigm to develop low-threshold, surface-emitting laser diodes, ranging from the ultraviolet region to the deep visible range (approximately 200 to 600 nm). At this range, the device performance was not limited by the lack of high-quality DBRs, large lattice mismatch, or substrate availability. The results are now published on Science Advances. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Writing in Nature, researchers describe the first-time observation of 'self-organized criticality' in a controlled laboratory experiment. Complex systems exist in mathematics and physics, but also occur in nature and society. The concept of self-organized criticality claims that without external input, complex systems in non-equilibrium tend to develop into a critical state far away from a stable equilibrium. That way, they reinforce their own non-equilibrium. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    The chess world was amazed when the computer algorithm AlphaZero learned, after just four hours on its own, to beat the best chess programs built on human expertise. Now a research group at Aarhus University in Denmark has used the very same algorithm to control a quantum computer. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    Researchers have harnessed the power of a type of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to create a new laser-based system that can image around corners in real time. With further development, the system might let self-driving cars "look" around parked cars or busy intersections to see hazards or pedestrians. It could also be installed on satellites and spacecraft for tasks such as capturing images inside a cave on an asteroid. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
    In terms of space organization, DNA has powers rivaling Marie Kondo. A strand of DNA that is two meters long intricately folds itself into a cell nucleus only 10 microns across. (One of the hairs on your head has a diameter of 100 microns, and you can't see anything smaller than that without a microscope.) Everything that needs to happen biochemically for the DNA to function hinges upon the precise unpacking and unwinding of its strands from that tiny space. [...]
    Thu, Jan 16, 2020
    Source: Physorg Physics Category: PHYSICS
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