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    Dyes and Pigments

    Abstract Dyes are commonly used in various industries and unfortunately many of them are discharged into water bodies, causing environmental problems. In the current study, three hydrophobic, halogen‐free ionic liquids were synthesised and their capability as extracting agents was evaluated using four reactive dyes (CI Reactive Blue 4, CI Reactive Black 5, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2). The ionic liquids, immiscible with the aqueous phase, could extract the reactive dyes from aqueous solutions, withdrawing the same amount of weight. The effects of pH and temperature on the extraction process were also studied. Trioctylmethyl ammonium ethylenediaminetetraacetate displayed a high extraction efficiency (99%), where only 33 mg of ionic liquids extracted 50 mg of CI Reactive Blue 4. Fourier Transform–infrared spectroscopy was used to screen the interaction between the ionic liquid and CI Reactive Blue 4 during the extraction stage. [...]
    Tue, Sep 10, 2019
    Source: Coloration Technology Category: DYES PIGMENTS
    Abstract In order to create a commercial system for blending precoloured fibres that will appear visually solid once combined, it is necessary to understand the maximum colour difference required between the blend components. Based on this understanding, the lowest number of primaries required to populate a given colour gamut can be determined. A series of psychophysical experiments was carried out to explore the colour difference between fibre‐blend components and whether the resulting blended samples are perceived as visually solid. Experiments were carried out with loose stock fibre, yarn and knitted samples. Generally, it was found that the likelihood a blend appeared as visually solid increased as the average colour difference between the blend components, or primaries, decreased. The value of the mean colour difference at which 50% of participants viewed the blend as being visually solid was found to be 20.8, 20.5 and 18.0 for fibre, yarn and knitted samples, respectively. Consequently, it was found that it was more difficult to obtain a solid shade with the knitted form than with the loose stock fibre form. [...]
    Wed, Jul 24, 2019
    Source: Coloration Technology Category: DYES PIGMENTS
    Abstract In order to create a commercial system for blending precoloured fibres that will appear visually solid once combined, it is necessary to understand the maximum colour difference required between the blend components. Based on this understanding, the lowest number of primaries required to populate a given colour gamut can be determined. A series of psychophysical experiments was carried out to explore the colour difference between fibre‐blend components and whether the resulting blended samples are perceived as visually solid. Experiments were carried out with loose stock fibre, yarn and knitted samples. Generally, it was found that the likelihood a blend appeared as visually solid increased as the average colour difference between the blend components, or primaries, decreased. The value of the mean colour difference at which 50% of participants viewed the blend as being visually solid was found to be 20.8, 20.5 and 18.0 for fibre, yarn and knitted samples, respectively. Consequently, it was found that it was more difficult to obtain a solid shade with the knitted form than with the loose stock fibre form. [...]
    Wed, Jul 24, 2019
    Source: Coloration Technology Category: DYES PIGMENTS
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