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    Physics

    Study unveils a new supersolid phase in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Generally, matter exists in three distinct forms: as a solid, a liquid or a gas. Past physics research, however, has unveiled other curious states of matter, one of which is supersolidity. In a supersolid state, particles are arranged into a rigid crystal and can nonetheless flow through the solid without any friction. Although this may appear contradictory, this state is allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors

    When ring-shaped electromagnets are set up in linear arrangements, they can produce magnetic fields resembling a tube with a cone at each end—a structure that repels charged particles entering one cone back along their path of approach. Referred to as ‘magnetic mirrors’, these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky. In a study published in EPJ D, physicists led by Wen-Shan Duan at Northwest Normal University, and Lei Yang at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, both in Lanzhou, China, show that these plasma leaks can be minimised if specific conditions are met. Using computer simulations, the physicists analysed the dynamic properties of a high-energy proton plasma beam within a magnetic mirror and fine-tuned the simulation settings to maximise its confinement. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations

    Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. If you increase the number of lattice points in a simulation, it becomes harder to tell the difference between the observed result of the simulation and the surrounding noise. A new study by Marco Ce, a physicist based at the Helmholtz-Institut Mainz in Germany and recently published in EPJ Plus, describes a technique for simulating particle ensembles that are ‘large’ (at least by the standards of particle physics). This improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus the precision of the simulation; crucially, it also can be used to model ensembles of baryons: a category of elementary particles that includes the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    Ultrasound-assisted optical imaging to replace endoscopy in breakthrough discovery

    Carnegie Mellon University’s Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Maysam Chamanzar and ECE Ph.D. student Matteo Giuseppe Scopelliti today published research that introduces a novel technique which uses ultrasound to noninvasively take optical images through a turbid medium such as biological tissue to image body’s organs. This new method has the potential to eliminate the need for invasive visual exams using endoscopic cameras. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    Highly anticipated nuclear experiment underway

    Neutron stars were recently in the news because the gravitational wave observatory, LIGO, detected a neutron star merger. Neutron stars are very interesting objects. A teaspoon of neutron star matter is so dense it would weigh about 10 million tons! The remnants of supernovae explosions, neutron stars tell us about the origin of matter in our universe. Our understanding of neutron stars depends on detailed calculations of nuclear structure. A professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dr. Samar Safi-Harb, does astrophysical observations of supernovae remnants. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    Quantum photonics by serendipity

    A photonic chip with no less than 128 tunable components proves to be a true computing “Swiss army knife” with a variety of applications. During her research on measuring light wavelengths using this photonic chip, Caterina Taballione of the University of Twente came across yet another application serendipitously—by sending single photons through the system instead of continuous light, the optical components can perform quantum operations, as well. The same chip works as a photonic quantum processor. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

    The fun way to manipulate atoms

    With their potential to perform calculations far beyond the reach of conventional supercomputers, machines harnessing certain quantum physics phenomena are expected to change the way the world solves complex problems. They will help scientists develop more efficient solar cells and more effective drugs, and even have an impact on artificial intelligence. This is because unlike today’s computers that work by manipulating binary bits existing in one of two states, a 0 or a 1, quantum computers use qubits, or quantum bits. These represent a state of an atom or elementary particle (such as the spin) with an ability to store multiple values at once, a phenomenon known as superposition. …read more

    Source:: Physorg Physics

          

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