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    General Chemistry

    Data science helps engineers discover new materials for solar cells and LEDs

    Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a high-throughput computational method to design new materials for next generation solar cells and LEDs. Their approach generated 13 new material candidates for solar cells and 23 new candidates for LEDs. Calculations predicted that these materials, called hybrid halide semiconductors, would be stable and exhibit excellent optoelectronic properties. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Artificial photosynthesis transforms carbon dioxide into liquefiable fuels

    Chemists at the University of Illinois have successfully produced fuels using water, carbon dioxide and visible light through artificial photosynthesis. By converting carbon dioxide into more complex molecules like propane, green energy technology is now one step closer to using excess CO2 to store solar energy—in the form of chemical bonds—for use when the sun is not shining and in times of peak demand. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Quantum rebar: Quantum dots enhance stability of solar-harvesting perovskite crystals

    University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power—and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. The resulting hybrid material is a major step toward reducing the cost of solar power while multiplying the ways it can be used. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Need for rigorous procedures within electrochemical production of ammonia

    Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most widely produced chemicals, with a global output of 170 megatons per year. It is the key ingredient in the production of fertilizers, and thus plays a critical role in sustaining the world’s population. However, more than 1 percent of global energy is consumed by the production of ammonia, which involves the reaction of dinitrogen (N2) from air and dihydrogen (H2), via the Haber-Bosch process. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Charging into the future—novel rock salt for use in rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Life today depends heavily on electricity. However, the unrelenting demand for electricity calls for increasingly greener and “portable” sources of energy. Although windmills and solar panels are promising alternatives, the fluctuation in output levels depending on external factors renders them unreliable. Thus, from the viewpoint of resource allocation and economics, high-energy density secondary batteries are the way forward. By synthesizing a novel material (a metal compound) for electrodes that facilitate reversing of the chemistry of ions, a group of researchers led by Prof. Idemoto from Tokyo University of Science combat the wasteful aspects of energy sources, by laying an important foundation for the production of next-generation rechargeable magnesium secondary batteries. The researchers are optimistic about this discovery and state, “We synthesized a rock salt type that has excellent potential for being used as the positive electrode material for next-generation secondary batteries.” …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Electric hookahs might be no safer than traditional charcoal-based ones

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, otherwise known as “hookah” or “shisha,” is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, especially among youth. Traditional hookahs burn charcoal as a heat source, but recently, electrical heating elements (EHEs) have been introduced to the market. Reinforced by product advertising and package labeling, many hookah smokers believe that EHEs are less harmful than charcoal. Now, researchers report in ACS’ Chemical Research in Toxicology that although EHEs reduce some toxicants, they increase others. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    3-D-printed device detects biomarkers of preterm birth

    Preterm birth (PTB)—defined as birth before the 37th week of gestation—is the leading complication of pregnancy. If doctors had a simple, accurate and inexpensive way to identify women at risk for the condition, they could develop better prevention strategies. Now researchers have created a 3-D-printed microchip electrophoresis device that can sensitively detect three serum biomarkers of PTB. They report their results in ACS’ journal Analytical Chemistry. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Ancient proteins offer clues to the past

    Archeologists once relied solely on artifacts, such as skeletal remains, fossils and pottery sherds, to learn about past species and cultures. Today’s scientists can also study ancient proteins to paint a more complete picture of the people who lived at archeological sites, and the plants and animals they raised and ate, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

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