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    General Chemistry

    Chemical engineers uncover ways to pattern solid surfaces to enhance how water interacts with them

    The dynamics of water near solid surfaces play a critical role in numerous technologies, including water filtration and purification, chromatography and catalysis. One well-known way to influence those dynamics, which in turn affects how water “wets” a surface, is to modify the surface hydrophobicity, or the extent to which the surface repels water. Such modifications can be achieved by altering the average coverage, or surface density, of hydrophobic chemical groups on the interface. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Scientists discover intricacies of serotonin receptor crucial for better therapeutics

    Serotonin, known as the “happiness” neurotransmitter, is a chemical found in the body responsible for feelings of well-being. But serotonin isn’t the only chemical that binds to the 13 serotonin receptors found on the surface of cells. Far from it. Many approved drugs also bind to serotonin receptors. And one of these receptors—called 5-HT2BR—has made drug developers very unhappy. That’s because some drugs that treat Parkinson’s disease, migraines, pituitary tumors, and obesity were designed to target other cellular receptors but also activate 5-HT2BR, leading to life-threatening valvular heart disease. As a result, many of these drugs have been pulled from the market. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Synthetic DNA-based enzymes

    Enzymes perform very specific functions and require little energy – which is why biocatalysts are also of interest to the chemical industry. In a review article published in the journal Nature Reviews Chemistry, Professor Thomas Happe and Associate Professor Anja Hemschemeier from the Photobiotechnology work group at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have provided a summary on what is known about the mechanisms of enzymes in nature. Moreover, the authors outline a future vision: artificial biocatalysts that are not protein-based, as they usually are in nature, but which are rather made from DNA. The article was published on 17 August 2018. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

    Screen of human proteins reveals some with antimicrobial power

    The human body produces many antimicrobial peptides that help the immune system fend off infection. Scientists hoping to harness these peptides as potential antibiotics have now discovered that other peptides in the human body can also have potent antimicrobial effects, expanding the pool of new antibiotic candidates. …read more

    Source:: PhysOrg Chemistry

          

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