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    Dyes and Pigments

    A fluorescent probe for the dual detection of mercury ions and thiols based on a simple coumarin derivative

    Abstract

    A fluorescent probe based on a simple coumarin derivative could recognise mercury ions (Hg(ii)) and thiols selectively in aqueous solution. The addition of Hg(ii) induced a blue shift of the fluorescence emission band of the probe while the fluorescence was almost quenched by the addition of p‐toluenethiol or cysteine (Cys). The detection limit of the probe towards Hg(ii) and Cys was 8 µmol/L. The probe could be used for the detection of Hg(ii) and thiols by the naked eye under ultraviolet light irradiation.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Synthesising polymeric dispersants to apply to carbon black pigmented mill bases for use in ink‐jet inks

    Abstract

    Dyes are an important component of drop‐on‐demand ink‐jet inks and are commonly used in desktop printers. While they offer bright, vivid colour, these dyes exhibit poor light and water fastness. To combat this, researchers have started using pigmented ink‐jet inks instead of dye‐based inks to improve light and water fastness, but the pigments are insoluble in ink vehicles. To use pigments, dispersants must be applied; however, this is a delicate process because the properties of the dispersant substantially affect how the pigmented mill base must be prepared. In this study, polymeric dispersants are synthesised based on the properties and ratios of monomers and the molecular weights of polymers. In total, 14 types of polymeric dispersants are synthesised and examined, with special attention paid to the dispersing properties of particle size reduction and the stability of the pigmented mill base used to prepare drop‐on‐demand ink‐jet inks. This study describes the synthesis of the dispersants in terms of their suitability for commercial application.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    The influence of ink viscosity, water and fabric construction on the quality of ink‐jet printed polyester

    Abstract

    This paper is concerned with the quality of lines and disperse ink in printing patterns on different untreated polyester fabric constructions. The lines running in the weft and warp directions were printed on polyester fabric constructions, and printing accuracy was assessed. Ink spreading is one of the important factors that influences the ink distribution. Thus, in order to acquire satisfactory ink‐jet printing products, it is essential to control the spreading of ink on the polyester fabric. To meet these conditions, a series of chemicals (disperse dye 5.01 wt%, PVP‐K30 0‐2 wt%, DEG 5‐20 wt%, water 64.17‐79.17 wt%, etc) with different mass fractions was used to prepare disperse ink. The jetting behaviour of ink was related to its surface tension and viscosity, which was characterised by an automatic surface tensiometer and rotational viscometer. Line profile was used to evaluate the printing effect. Low field nuclear magnetic resonance and three‐dimensional super depth digital microscopy were used to reveal the relationships between the state of water, ink diffusion behaviour and printing sharpness. The results showed that increasing ink viscosity or decreasing free water content is advantageous to improve the sharpness of the printing pattern. The effects of fabric structural parameters on line image quality are discussed. The printing quality was closely related to the weight and structure of fabric. The heavy weight fabrics had accurate print pattern sharpness. The fastness test results showed that the ink printing pattern had good colour fastness.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Application of D‐optimal design in the analysis and modelling of dyeing of plasma‐treated wool with three natural dyes

    Abstract

    Both the dyeing and finishing of textiles with natural compounds are gaining increasing attention because of various environmental and health problems associated with the use of synthetic reagents. In this study, wool fibres were dyed with three natural dyes, namely, Arnebia euchroma, cotton pods and harmal seeds. Alum was used as the mordant, and samples were mordanted by the premordanting method. Oxygen plasma was employed for the surface modification of wool. Plasma treatment time, alum concentration, dyebath temperature and pH were selected as the process variables, and their effects on the K/S of the dyed samples were analysed using D‐optimal design. The surface topography, morphology and chemistry of the wool fibres after plasma treatment were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform–infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. FTIR confirmed the creation of new oxygen‐containing groups on the surface of wool fibres after plasma treatment. SEM and AFM images confirmed the surface etching and increase in the roughness of plasma‐treated fibres. Increasing the dyebath pH and temperature increased the K/S of the dyed samples. Increasing the amount of alum mordant increased the K/S of samples dyed with cotton pods but decreased the K/S of samples dyed with A. euchroma and harmal seeds. Increasing the plasma treatment time improved the K/S of samples dyed with A. euchroma and cotton pods but had no significant effect on the K/S of samples dyed with harmal seeds.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Accelerated weathering performance of Scots pine preimpregnated with copper‐based chemicals before varnish coating Part:1 coated with cellulosic and polyurethane varnishes

    Abstract

    This study aimed to determine the effect of accelerated weathering on gloss, surface hardness and colour changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Test samples were impregnated with Adolit KD‐5, Wolmanit CX‐8 and Celcure AC‐500 covered with cellulosic and polyurethane varnishes. The results showed that the values of surface hardness and gloss increased after accelerated weathering. While the surface hardness of Scots pine was increased for impregnated and polyurethane‐coated varnish, it decreased for impregnated and cellulosic varnish‐coated Scots pine after 1000 hours of accelerated weathering exposure. Copper‐based chemical impregnation and varnish coating developed the gloss of Scots pine specimens relative to the surface characteristics observed in single‐coated Scots pine specimens. While the most appropriate chemical was Celcure AC‐500 for surface hardness, it was Adolit KD‐5 for the gloss of Scots pine after 1000 hours of accelerated weathering exposure. Wood specimens impregnated prior to the application of varnish were more effective in stabilising the colour of Scots pine than Scots pine only coated with varnish. Polyurethane varnish‐treated Scots pine showed better colour stability for each partial and total accelerated weathering exposure period. The total colour changes were lowest for polyurethane varnish‐coated Scots pine impregnated with Celcure AC‐500 after 1000 hours of accelerated weathering exposure.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Treatment of originally coloured wools with garlic stem extracts and zinc chloride to ensure anti‐bacterial properties with limited colour changes

    Abstract

    In this study, the objective was to ensure anti‐bacterial properties for originally coloured wools with naturally sourced garlic stem extracts. In addition, zinc chloride‐based treatment was also carried out. The aim was to retain the original colours of the wool fibres during these treatments. The effects of both treatments were evaluated in terms of colour changes in the wool fibres. It was found that the colour changes caused by the treatments were high in white/ecru fibres but more limited in black fibres. The colour differences between the treated and untreated black fibres were near 1; they were also quite high in white/ecru fibres. The anti‐bacterial properties of the treated wool fibres against two bacteria species, one gram‐negative and one gram‐positive, were also investigated. It was observed that zinc chloride‐based treatment ensured significant anti‐bacterial efficiencies against the bacteria tested and 99.9% bacterial reduction in all cases. However, the anti‐bacterial effects of garlic stem extract‐based treated wool fibres were limited. It was observed that treatment of wool fibres with garlic stem extracts resulted in no anti‐bacterial efficiency against Escherichia coli but did provide some anti‐bacterial capability against Staphylococcus aureus. The highest bacterial reduction of S. aureus was 80.7% in originally brown‐coloured wool fibre.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Simulation, synthesis, characterisation and dyeing properties of a fluorescent hemicyanine dye

    Abstract

    In this study, a hemicyanine dye, trans‐4‐(4‐(diethylamino)styryl)‐1‐ethylpyridinium bromide (DYE‐BD), was synthesised and simulated. The maximum absorption wavelength of DYE‐BD was calculated with the same basis set by using the Gaussian 09 software based on different methods, while time‐dependent density functional theory was applied to simulate the maximum emission wavelength of the designed dye. The changes in enthalpy and Gibbs free energy were simulated at the b3lyp/6‐31G(d) level, and energy changes in the luminescence process were assessed using mathematical methods. Furthermore, DYE‐BD was used to colour acrylic fabric following the typical dyeing procedure for cationic dyes. The photostability of the synthesised dye was analysed using quantum theory and mathematical methods. The synthesised dye, analysed using the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships class program, had no toxicity to aquatic life, while the acrylic fabrics dyed with DYE‐BD met the fluorescent orange requirements for background and combined performance materials according to the EN ISO 20471:2013 standard.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Titanium dioxide grafted with silane coupling agents and its use in blue light curing ink

    Abstract

    To improve the properties of titanium dioxide particles and realise their firm anchorage in blue light curing film, three modified titanium dioxide particles were prepared by grafting 3‐(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, 3‐aminopropyltriethoxysilane and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane. The surface changes of titanium dioxide particles after modification were characterised. The dispersion stability, photo‐polymerisation, rheological and mechanical properties of modified titanium dioxide blue light curing inks were investigated. Results showed that compared with native titanium dioxide, modified titanium dioxide particles were more appropriate for blue light curing ink. The particle sizes of the three modified titanium dioxide particles became smaller, their surfaces exhibited hydrophobicity, and the viscosity of the modified titanium dioxide inks decreased slightly. Of the three modified titanium dioxide particles, 3‐(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate‐ and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane‐modified titanium dioxide particles exhibited better dispersion stability in blue light curing ink. In particular, 3‐(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate‐modified titanium dioxide blue light curing ink showed the best photo‐polymerisation and mechanical properties, which indicated the participation of the pigment grafted by double bonds in the blue light curable polymerisation. Using modified titanium dioxide in blue light curing ink, the dry/wet rubbing fastness of the printed fabrics improved.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Antimicrobial sulphonamide azo dyes

    Abstract

    Sulphonamide motifs are widely found in many drug candidates with relevant biological activity. Moreover, sulphonamide azo dyes are interesting candidates for synthetic chemists because such dyes provide access to a broad range of functional group transformations. Therefore, many synthetic procedures for the preparation of sulphonamide azo dyes have been developed in recent decades, and the search for rapid and efficient protocols is ongoing. The current article aims to review recent trends in the synthesis of sulphonamide azo dyes and their applications as high‐performance colorants with antimicrobial activity. For convenience, the diverse uses of sulphonamide azo dyes are discussed from the perspective of the application type rather than the structural class.

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    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

    Antimicrobial sulphonamide azo dyes

    Abstract

    Sulphonamide motifs are widely found in many drug candidates with relevant biological activity. Moreover, sulphonamide azo dyes are interesting candidates for synthetic chemists because such dyes provide access to a broad range of functional group transformations. Therefore, many synthetic procedures for the preparation of sulphonamide azo dyes have been developed in recent decades, and the search for rapid and efficient protocols is ongoing. The current article aims to review recent trends in the synthesis of sulphonamide azo dyes and their applications as high‐performance colorants with antimicrobial activity. For convenience, the diverse uses of sulphonamide azo dyes are discussed from the perspective of the application type rather than the structural class.

    …read more

    Source:: Coloration Technology

          

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